THE FIRST PLEDGE AT AL- ‘AQABA April 621 A.D.
Ishaq:198/TabariVI:125 “The following year, twelve of the Ansar came on the pilgrimage and met the Messenger, this being the first Aqabah. They took an oath of allegiance to him according to the terms of the ‘Pledge of Women.’ This was before the duty of making war was laid upon them.”
Ishaq:199/Tabari VI:127 “There were twelve of us and we pledged ourselves to the Prophet in the manner of women that was laid out before war was enjoined.”
THE SECOND PLEDGE AT AL-‘AQABA, March, 622 A.D.
This second group met Muhammad secretly in the middle of the night, on his orders, to pledge their allegiance to him, against their own tribesmen.
Muhammad arranged that they should meet him secretlyat Mina, in the days of the Tashrick, when men had fallen asleep.’ Secretary of Wackidi p.424
“We had concealed our business from those of our people who were polytheists. We slept that night among our people in the caravan until when a third of the night had passed we went stealing off softly like sandgrouse to our appointment with the apostle, as far as the gully by al-‘Aqaba. There were seventy-three men, with two of our women.”
Ibn Ishaq 203: The apostle spoke and recited the Quran, and invited men to Allah and commended Islam. Then he said, ‘I will enter a contract of allegiance with you, provided that you protect me as you would your women and children.’
Tabari VI:133 “We pledge our allegiance to you and we shall defend you as we would our womenfolk. Administer the oath of allegiance to us, Messenger of Allah, for we are men of war possessing weapons and coats of armour.
Ishaq:208 “When Allah gave permission to his Apostle to fight, the second Aqabah contained conditions involving war which were not in the first act of submission. Now we bound ourselves to war against all mankind for Allah and His Apostle. He promised us a reward in Paradise for faithful service. We pledged ourselves to war in complete obedience to Muhammad no matter how evil the circumstances.”
Tabari VI:138 “Those present at the oath of Aqabah had sworn an allegiance to Muhammad. It was a pledge of war against all men.Allah had ordered fighting.
Allah had given his Messenger permission to fight by revealing the verse:
‘FIGHT THEM UNTIL PERSECUTION IS NO MORE AND RELIGION IS ALL FOR ALLAH.’
Ishaq:204/TabariVI:134 Abbas the uncle of the Prophet said: ‘Men of the Khazraj, do you know what you are pledging yourselves to in swearing allegiance to this man?
‘Yes,’ they answered. ‘In swearing allegiance to him we are pledging ourselves to wage war against all mankind.’
Ishaq:205 ‘If you are loyal to this undertaking, it will profit you in this world and the next’ said Muhammad. They said, ‘We will accept you as a Prophet under these conditions, but we want to know specifically what we will get in return for our loyalty.’ Muhammad answered, ‘I promise you Paradise .’
Tabari ‘What shall we gain for our loyalty?’ He answered, ‘ Paradise. So reach out your hand.’ They stretched out their arms and swore an allegiance to him.
Hishami; p.161; Katib al Wackidi, p. 42 1/2; Tabari, p.172
When Muhammad fled Mecca and established himself at his new base, Medina , in 622, and had the support of militant tribes, he announced a treaty defining the rights of his Muslim community and the non-Muslims.
The following text is an extract from the first official treaty of Muhammad’s Muslims and the other tribes inMedina :
JIHAD. This is the exact Arabic term used in the text. This word has the exclusive meaning of Jihad, crusade,fighting for Islam in Allah’s Cause.
“This is a document from Muhammad the prophet governing the relations between the believers and Muslims, and those who followed them and joined them and labored with them. They are one community,ummah, to the exclusion of all other men.
A believer shall not take as an ally the freedman of another Muslim against him. The believers, who fear Allah, shall be against the rebellious, or him who seeks to spread injustice, or sin or enmity or corruption between believers. The hand of every man shall be against him, even if he be a son of one of them. A believer shall not slay a believer for the sake of an unbeliever, nor shall he aid an unbeliever against a believer. Allah’s protection is one, the least of them may give
protection to a stranger on their behalf. Believers are friends one to the other, to the exclusion of outsiders.
No separate peace shall be made when believers are fighting in the way of Allah. Conditions must be fair and equitable to all believers. The believers must avenge. The believers who fear Allah enjoy the best and most upright guidance.
Loyalty is a protection against treachery. The contracting parties are bound to help one another against any attack. If they are called to make peace and maintain it, they must do so. If they make a similar demand on the Muslims, it must be carried out, except in the case of a holy war.
Allah approves of this document. This deed will notprotect the unjust and the sinner. The man who goes forth to fight and the man who stays at home in the city is safe, unless he has been unjust and sinned. Allah is the protector of the good and those who fear Allah, andMuhammad is the apostle of Allah.
Signed, Allah’s Apostle, the Lord of the Muslims, Leader of the Allah Fearing, Messenger of the Lord of the Worlds, the Peerless and Unequalled
From Ibn Ishaq Sirat Rasul Allah pgs. 231-233
By Jennifer King